Black Sea Inhaltsangabe & Details

Tief unten in der schwarzen Kälte des Meeres, wo auf den Menschen eigentlich nichts als der Tod wartet, befindet sich die Besatzung eines U-Boots auf der Mission ihres Lebens: Im Abenteuer-Thriller BLACK SEA schickt der Oscar-prämierte Regisseur. Black Sea ist ein britisch-amerikanischer Abenteuer-Thriller-Film unter Regie von Kevin Macdonald. Das Drehbuch schrieb Dennis Kelly. Hauptdarsteller war. Black Sea (englisch „schwarzes Meer“) steht für: Black Sea (Film), britisch-​amerikanischer Film von Kevin Macdonald (); Black Sea, umgangssprachlicher. Black Sea ein Film von Kevin Macdonald mit Jude Law, Scoot McNairy. Inhaltsangabe: Nachdem Robinson (Jude Law) völlig unerwartet seinen Job bei einem. Black Sea [dt./OV]. (64) MinAb 12 freigegebenUntertitel. Wie viele U-​Boot-Fahrer hat auch Captain Robinson seinen Job verloren. Als ihm ein Investor​.

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European Commission - the thematic website for maritime affairs. Sea basin strategies i.e. activities, projects, etc related to specific sea basins (Baltic Sea. Black Sea [dt./OV]. ()1h 54minX-Ray Wie viele U-Boot-Fahrer hat auch Captain Robinson seinen Job verloren. Als ihm ein Investor anbietet. Black Sea ist ein britisch-amerikanischer Abenteuer-Thriller-Film unter Regie von Kevin Macdonald. Das Drehbuch schrieb Dennis Kelly. Hauptdarsteller war.

It has been erroneously suggested that the name was derived from the color of the water, or was at least related to climatic conditions.

Strabo 's Geographica 1. He also thought the Black Sea was called "inhospitable" before Greek colonization because it was difficult to navigate and because its shores were inhabited by savage tribes.

The basin includes two distinct relict back-arc basins which were initiated by the splitting of an Albian volcanic arc and the subduction of both the Paleo - and Neo- Tethys Oceans, but the timings of these events remain uncertain.

Arc volcanism and extension occurred as the Neo-Tethys Ocean subducted under the southern margin of Laurasia during the Mesozoic.

Uplift and compressional deformation took place as the Neotethys continued to close. Seismic surveys indicate that rifting began in the Western Black Sea in the Barremian and Aptian followed by the formation of oceanic crust 20 million years later in the Santonian.

During the Messinian salinity crisis in the neighboring Mediterranean Sea, water levels fell but without drying up the sea.

The ongoing collision between the Eurasian and African plates and westward escape of the Anatolian block along the North Anatolian Fault and East Anatolian Faults dictates the current tectonic regime, [24] which features enhanced subsidence in the Black Sea basin and significant volcanic activity in the Anatolian region.

The Euxine abyssal plain in the centre of the Black Sea reaches a maximum depth of 2, metres 7, The littoral zone of the Black Sea is often referred to as the Pontic littoral or Pontic zone.

The Black Sea contains oil and natural gas resources but exploration in the sea is incomplete. As of , 20 wells are in place.

Throughout much of its existence, the Black Sea has had significant oil and gas-forming potential because of significant inflows of sediment and nutrient-rich waters.

However, this varies geographically. For example, prospects are poorer off the coast of Bulgaria because of the large influx of sediment from the Danube River which obscured sunlight and diluted organic-rich sediments.

Many of the discoveries to date have taken place offshore of Romania in the Western Black Sea and only a few discoveries have been made in the Eastern Black Sea.

During the Eocene , the Paratethys Ocean was partially isolated and sea levels fell. During this time sand shed off the rising Balkanide, Pontide and Caucasus mountains trapped organic material in the Maykop Suite of rocks through the Oligocene and early Miocene.

Natural gas appears in rocks deposited in the Miocene and Pliocene by the paleo-Dnieper and pale-Dniester rivers, or in deep-water Oligocene-age rocks.

Serious exploration began in with two deep-water wells, Limanköy-1 and Limanköy-2, drilled in Turkish waters. Although geologists inferred that these rocks might have hydrocarbons that migrated from the Maykop Suite, the well was unsuccessful.

No more drilling happened for five years after the HPX-1 well. Then in , Sinop-1 targeted carbonate reservoirs potentially charged from the nearby Maykop Suite on the Andrusov Ridge, but the well-struck only Cretaceous volcanic rocks.

Yassihöyük-1 encountered similar problems. Other Turkish wells, Sürmene-1 and Sile-1 drilled in the Eastern Black Sea in and respectively tested four-way closures above Cretaceous volcanoes, with no results in either case.

A different Turkish well, Kastamonu-1 drilled in did successfully find thermogenic gas in Pliocene and Miocene shale-cored anticlines in the Western Black Sea.

A year later in , Romania drilled Domino-1 which struck gas prompting the drilling of other wells in the Neptun Deep. In , the Bulgarian well Polshkov-1 targeted Maykop Suite sandstones in the Polshkov High and Russia is in the process of drilling Jurassic carbonates on the Shatsky Ridge as of The Black Sea is a marginal sea [31] and is the world's largest body of water with a meromictic basin.

Because of the extreme stratification, it is classified as a salt wedge estuary. The Black Sea only experiences water transfer with the Mediterranean Sea , so all inflow and outflow occurs in the Bosporus and Dardanelles.

Inflow from the Mediterranean has a higher salinity and density than the outflow, creating the classical estuarine circulation.

This means that the inflow of dense water from the Mediterranean occurs at the bottom of the basin while the outflow of fresher Black Sea surface-water into the Marmara Sea occurs near the surface.

The southern sill of the Bosporus is located at This allows for turbulent mixing of the two layers. Likewise, an inflow of the Mediterranean with salinity Mean surface circulation is cyclonic and waters around the perimeter of the Black Sea circulate in a basin-wide shelfbreak gyre known as the Rim Current.

Within this feature, two smaller cyclonic gyres operate, occupying the eastern and western sectors of the basin. Mesoscale activity in the peripheral flow becomes more pronounced during these warmer seasons and is subject to interannual variability.

Outside of the Rim Current, numerous quasi-permanent coastal eddies are formed as a result of upwelling around the coastal apron and "wind curl" mechanisms.

The intra-annual strength of these features is controlled by seasonal atmospheric and fluvial variations. During the spring, the Batumi eddy forms in the southeastern corner of the sea.

Beneath the surface waters—from about 50— meters—there exists a halocline that stops at the Cold Intermediate Layer CIL. This layer is composed of cool, salty surface waters, which are the result of localized atmospheric cooling and decreased fluvial input during the winter months.

It is the remnant of the winter surface mixed layer. Below the pycnocline is the Deep Water mass, where salinity increases to Weak geothermal heating and long residence time create a very thick convective bottom layer.

The Black Sea undersea river is a current of particularly saline water flowing through the Bosporus Strait and along the seabed of the Black Sea.

The discovery of the river announced on August 1, , was made by scientists at the University of Leeds and is the first of its kind in the world.

Because of the anoxic water at depth, organic matter, including anthropogenic artifacts such as boat hulls, are well preserved.

During periods of high surface productivity, short-lived algal blooms form organic rich layers known as sapropels. Scientists have reported an annual phytoplankton bloom that can be seen in many NASA images of the region.

Modelling shows the release of the hydrogen sulfide clouds in the event of an asteroid impact into the Black Sea would pose a threat to health—or even life—for people living on the Black Sea coast.

There have been isolated reports of flares on the Black Sea occurring during thunderstorms, possibly caused by lightning igniting combustible gas seeping up from the sea depths.

The Black Sea supports an active and dynamic marine ecosystem, dominated by species suited to the brackish , nutrient-rich, conditions.

As with all marine food webs, the Black Sea features a range of trophic groups, with autotrophic algae, including diatoms and dinoflagellates , acting as primary producers.

The fluvial systems draining Eurasia and central Europe introduce large volumes of sediment and dissolved nutrients into the Black Sea, but the distribution of these nutrients is controlled by the degree of physiochemical stratification, which is, in turn, dictated by seasonal physiographic development.

During winter, strong wind promotes convective overturning and upwelling of nutrients, while high summer temperatures result in a marked vertical stratification and a warm, shallow mixed layer.

Subsurface productivity is limited by nutrient availability, as the anoxic bottom waters act as a sink for reduced nitrate, in the form of ammonia.

The benthic zone also plays an important role in Black Sea nutrient cycling, as chemosynthetic organisms and anoxic geochemical pathways recycle nutrients which can be upwelled to the photic zone, enhancing productivity.

In total, Black Sea's biodiversity contains around one-third of Mediterranean's and is experiencing natural and artificial invasions or Mediterranizations.

The main phytoplankton groups present in the Black Sea are dinoflagellates , diatoms , coccolithophores and cyanobacteria. Generally, the annual cycle of phytoplankton development comprises significant diatom and dinoflagellate-dominated spring production, followed by a weaker mixed assemblage of community development below the seasonal thermocline during summer months and surface-intensified autumn production.

Since the s, rapid industrial expansion along the Black Sea coast line and the construction of a major dam has significantly increased annual variability in the N:P:Si ratio in the basin.

In coastal areas, the biological effect of these changes has been an increase in the frequency of monospecific phytoplankton blooms, with diatom bloom frequency increasing by a factor of 2.

The non-diatoms, such as the prymnesiophytes Emiliania huxleyi coccolithophore , Chromulina sp. The decline in macrophytes was further compounded by overfishing during the s, while the invasive ctenophore Mnemiopsis reduced the biomass of copepods and other zooplankton in the late s.

Additionally, an alien species—the warty comb jelly Mnemiopsis leidyi —was able to establish itself in the basin, exploding from a few individuals to estimated biomass of one billion metric tons.

In central Black Sea waters, Si levels were also significantly reduced, due to a decrease in the flux of Si associated with advection across isopycnal surfaces.

This phenomenon demonstrates the potential for localized alterations in Black Sea nutrient input to have basin-wide effects.

Pollution reduction and regulation efforts have led to a partial recovery of the Black Sea ecosystem during the s, and an EU monitoring exercise, 'EROS21', revealed decreased N and P values, relative to the peak.

Mnemiopsis leidyi populations have been checked with the arrival of another alien species which feeds on them.

Hermit crab , Diogenes pugilator. Black Sea Common Dolphins with a kite-surfer off Sochi. In the past, the range of the Asiatic lion extended from South Asia to the Balkans , possibly up to the Danube.

Places like Turkey and the Trans-Caucasus were in this range. The Caspian tiger occurred in eastern Turkey and the Caucasus , at least.

The lyuti zver Old East Slavic for "fierce animal" that was encountered by Vladimir II Monomakh , Velikiy Kniaz of Kievan Rus' which ranged to the Black Sea in the south , [72] may have been a tiger or leopard , rather than a wolf or lynx , due to the way it behaved towards him and his horse.

Short-term climatic variation in the Black Sea region is significantly influenced by the operation of the North Atlantic oscillation , the climatic mechanisms resulting from the interaction between the north Atlantic and mid-latitude air masses.

The relative strength of these systems also limits the amount of cold air arriving from northern regions during winter.

There is also evidence that water levels in the Black Sea were considerably lower at some point during the post-glacial period.

Some researchers theorize that the Black Sea had been a landlocked freshwater lake at least in upper layers during the last glaciation and for some time after.

In the aftermath of the last glacial period, water levels in the Black Sea and the Aegean Sea rose independently until they were high enough to exchange water.

The exact timeline of this development is still subject to debate. One possibility is that the Black Sea filled first, with excess freshwater flowing over the Bosporus sill and eventually into the Mediterranean Sea.

The hypothesis was headlined when The New York Times published it in December , shortly before it was published in an academic journal.

Relevant to the hypothesis is that its description has led some to connect this catastrophe with prehistoric flood myths.

The Black Sea was a busy waterway on the crossroads of the ancient world: the Balkans to the west, the Eurasian steppes to the north, the Caucasus and Central Asia to the east, Asia Minor and Mesopotamia to the south, and Greece to the south-west.

The oldest processed gold in the world was found in Varna , Bulgaria, and Greek mythology portrays the Argonauts as sailing on the Black Sea.

The land at the eastern end of the Black Sea, Colchis , now Georgia , marked for the Greeks the edge of the known world. The steppes to the north of the Black Sea have been suggested as the original homeland Urheimat of the speakers of the Proto-Indo-European language , PIE the progenitor of the Indo-European language family, by some scholars such as Marija Gimbutas ; others move the homeland further east towards the Caspian Sea , yet others to Anatolia.

Black Sea Basin Call for proposals. This section helps the potential applicants to design and submit Applications in the framework of the different calls.

Our Projects Projects Implementation. The key documents useful for the implementation and management of projects can be found under this section.

Keep up to date with the latest news on projects implementation. View All News Archives. Black Sea. Article Media. Info Print Print. Table Of Contents.

Submit Feedback. Thank you for your feedback. Lomonosov State University. Author of Hydrology of the Caspian and Aral Seas.

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